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蓟门法哲学研习会2016-2017专题研讨(七):《实践理性与规范》第三章

2017年11月21日 没有评论

报告主题:《实践理性与规范》第三章

报告人:

成亮(中国政法大学2017级法学理论专业硕士研究生)

张泽键(中国政法大学2017级法学理论专业硕士研究生)

内容简介:

拉兹在第三章考察了两种非命令性规范的本质,即许可性规范和授权性规范。第一节的任务是厘清在哪种意义上许可能够被视为规范以及许可性规范何以可能。拉兹首先借由许可的多种类型引出了一个流行的区分:强许可与弱许可。拉兹承认这种区分的重要性,但认为这一区分无法解释能够将哪些许可视为基于授予许可规范上的许可。因此拉兹提出“排他性许可”这一强许可概念,并用它解释 “善举”,以说明作为二阶许可的排他性许可在实践推理中的重要作用。在第二节中,拉兹对规范性权力的特性进行了分析,并分析了授权性规范。存在不同的理解规范性权力的方式,但是这些理解都无法和其他相似的情形进行区分,在拉兹看来,规范性权力的独特性在于:它是一种涉及到适用于一个人自己或者他人的行动的排他性理由的能力。而一个行为只有在其被承认为一个引起规范性变化的行为时,才属于行使规范性权力的行为。因此,规范性权力和规范密切相关,授权性规范和许可性规范类似,其自身并不是一个实施或者不实施该行为的理由,但是,其同样具有指导行为的力量。

时间:2017年11月19日(星期日)下午2:00——5:00。

地点:中国政法大学研究生院新二号楼二层活动室。

欢迎参加。

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蓟门法哲学研习会2016-2017专题研讨(六):《实践理性与规范》第二章

2017年11月12日 没有评论

报告主题:《实践理性与规范》第二章

报告人:

王昱博(中国政法大学2014级法学理论专业硕士研究生)

孙莎莎(中国政法大学2016级法学理论专业硕士研究生)

内容简介:

拉兹在第二章“命令性规范”要进行的工作是依据理由的概念来解释“命令性规范“(mandatory norms)这种特殊的规范类型,说明这类规范构成什么类型的理由,其与其他理由有何不同。在既有对命令性规范的讨论中,以哈特为代表的实践理论是一种颇具代表性的理论,拉兹首先对哈特关于规则的实践理论进行了批判。他认为实践理论存在三个致命缺陷:它不能说明不是实践的规则;它不能区分社会规则和广泛接受的理由;它褫夺了规则的规范性特征。拉兹认为,理解规则的主要问题是要明白规则是何种理由,以及规则与其他理由的区别何在。不管命令性规范是否得到人们的相信、遵守或实践,都必须能够和其他理由区分开来。拉兹主张,命令性规范是一个排他性理由。拉兹首先证明了两种类型的规则即经验的规则和权威颁布的规则都是排他性规则,之后拉兹对决定进行了分析,因为决定和规范在实践推理中所起的作用类似。做出决定就是结束考虑,决定是一种排他性理由理由,又同时是实施决定了行为的一阶理由。命令性规范在一个相信它们的人的行为中所起的作用,类似于决定,它既是行动者实施规范性行为的有效理由,又是他不考虑与之相冲突的理由的有效理由。但是拉兹指出,并非所有的排他性理由都是规范,规范和其他排他性理由的区别是本体论上的——规范被作为实体来对待。而规范之所以能够作为一个完整理由,是因为规范相对独立于证明其正当性的理由。当我们在说存在一条规范时,是在三个维度上使用它:它是有效的(即正当的);它是得到实践的;它是由一定的个人或机构规定的。规范要么是三者之一,要么是这些特性的某种结合。

时间:2017年11月12日(星期日)下午2:00——5:00。

地点:中国政法大学研究生院新二号楼二层活动室。

欢迎参加。

分类: 待弃文存 标签:

蓟门法哲学研习会2014-2015专题研讨(二):《法律的概念》中的规则理论

2014年9月25日 没有评论

主题:

《法律的概念》中的规则理论

报告人:
薛鸣秋(中国政法大学刑事司法学院2013级本科生)

评论人:
蔡梦馨(中国政法大学2014级法律理论硕士生)
范立波(中国政法大学法学院副教授)

时间:2014年9月27号(星期六)下午2:00——5:00

地点:新二号楼二层会议室(暂定)。

欢迎参加。

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Religion without God. By Ronald Dworkin

2014年1月14日 没有评论

imagesAbout This Book

In his last book, Ronald Dworkin addresses questions that men and women have asked through the ages: What is religion and what is God’s place in it? What is death and what is immortality? Based on the 2011 Einstein Lectures, Religion without God is inspired by remarks Einstein made that if religion consists of awe toward mysteries which “manifest themselves in the highest wisdom and the most radiant beauty, and which our dull faculties can comprehend only in the most primitive forms,” then, he, Einstein, was a religious person.

Dworkin joins Einstein’s sense of cosmic mystery and beauty to the claim that value is objective, independent of mind, and immanent in the world. He rejects the metaphysics of naturalism—that nothing is real except what can be studied by the natural sciences. Belief in God is one manifestation of this deeper worldview, but not the only one. The conviction that God underwrites value presupposes a prior commitment to the independent reality of that value—a commitment that is available to nonbelievers as well. So theists share a commitment with some atheists that is more fundamental than what divides them. Freedom of religion should flow not from a respect for belief in God but from the right to ethical independence. 阅读全文…

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蓟门法哲学研习会2013年秋季学期经典阅读

2013年11月6日 没有评论

Derek-Parfit-On-What-Matters

2013年秋季学期,蓟门法哲学研习会经典阅读的主要内容为,阅读和讨论Derek Parfit的On What Matters。阅读讨论不以读完全部章节为目的,只求通过规范性地阅读与讨论,让参与者对Parfit的分析、写作方式与概念体系具有一定的把握,并对“人”在哲学中的核心地位有所体悟。

第一次活动公告

阅读章节:第一卷 第一章(Volume 1 Chapter 1 Normative Concepts)

第一卷 第二章(Volume 1 Chapter 2 Objective Theories)

活动时间:2013年11月9日(周六)14:00-17:00

活动地点:中国政法大学研究生院 新二号楼 二层活动室

阅读全文…

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第三期《法律理论》电子杂志正式发布(The Third Volume of Legal Theroy In China was published)

2013年10月9日 没有评论

1

欢迎点击下载 第三期《法律理论》电子杂志

The Third Volume of Legal Theroy In China was published on Oct. 9th, 2013.

Please click HERE to download the Third Volume. 阅读全文…

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大学新生可以读的几本书

2012年11月3日 没有评论

1、玛莎·努斯鲍姆著,肖聿译,告别功利——人文教育忧思录》,新华出版社

这本书的主题是人文教育可以为民主贡献什么,我认为它也可以作为大学生自我启蒙的一本读物,因为它可以启发我们思考,我们该成为什么样的人,哪些能力的培养对我们非常重要,以及为何重要。 阅读全文…

如何面向认知科学的新发展?

2012年9月28日 没有评论

9月23日,王凌皞博士在蓟门法哲学研习会上,做了题为“法理学——经典理论与认知科学”的报告,我临时发表了一个评论。今天收到王琳同学的整理文稿。最近很少写东西,博客除了发布信息和转帖外,很少有更新,所以,我对文稿稍加修饰和调整后,发布在此,供读者批判。在此也谢谢凌皞提供的富有信息量和冲击力的报告,谢谢王琳的整理。

现在认知科学确实发展很快,对于传统的伦理学、法学、道德哲学都产生很大的影响。我们作为凌皞所说的人文学科的研究者,不可能不去面对认知科学这样的发展势头和层出不穷的发展成果。既然凌皞希望听听我的看法,我就不从凌皞的论文内部去评论,而是从我的角度,说说我是如何理解面对认知科学的新发展这个问题。 阅读全文…

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法理学如何回应实践(《雏鸣》月刊版)

2012年5月22日 没有评论

法大《雏鸣》月刊的傅薇主编,打算发表我在法学院年会上的发言,我觉得发言稿过于粗糙,就修改了一下再给编辑部,在这里也贴一次。在此要特别感谢傅薇主编的欣赏和督促。“雏凤清于老凤声”,希望拙稿不会令编辑部同仁失望。

法理学实际上就是法哲学,是对法律性质的哲学研究。法理学一词是由日本东京大学的穗积陈重(1856-1926)创造的。当时日本的法哲学受黑格尔的思辨哲学影响甚深,令许多学生望而生畏,穗教授遂将英文的jurisprudence翻译为“法理学”。当然,改变译名并不能使法理学变得亲切而有趣。在许多法学院学生的眼里,法理学依然是难懂又无味的一门课程。法律实务家也认为它对自己的职业没有帮助。一些理论家也表达了某种反理论(anti-theory)倾向,比如,费什(Stanley Fish)认为法律人的工作与木匠活一样;木匠在使用钉子时,并不需要一个关于钉子的理论,同样,法律人在解释和适用法律时,也不需要一个关于法律的抽象理论,而是依赖“法律人的思维方式”、法律方法等高度职业化的技术,或某些教义性的学说。有趣的是,不少法理学者似乎也在响应这一主张,他们认为法理学的目的是要促进我们对法律的“社会理解”,但不会涉及到“特定争议如何决定,文本如何解释,或者制度如何建构”等规范性问题,也就是说,法理学应该在这类规范性问题上保持中立(normatively inert)。这种理论的极端形态,就是以高度专业化和技术化的方式,去发现和弥补既有理论的缝隙和漏洞,或澄清某些理论的真正意义,这种做法使得法理学研究堕落为小圈子里的沙龙法理学。 阅读全文…

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