於兴中:法理学佳作

2010年9月14日 发表评论 阅读评论

於先生对索拉姆(Larry Solum) 教授和莱特(Brian Leiter)教授的书单提出了批评,最后给出了自己的书单。我饶有兴致地浏览了这份书单,有几点想法略异于於先生。

第一,於先生选书的标准似乎太宽,按照这个标准,有些作者也应该选入。比如,於先生选了奥斯丁和边沁,就应该选择霍布斯。格劳修斯和普芬道夫也不应该忽视。索拉姆教授的同事Michael S. Moore的书也应该占据一席之地。

第二,有些书目的选择,似乎也可商榷。在拉兹的著作中,我认为The Concept of a Legal System的价值,远远比不上他的其它几本书,如practical reason and norms,The Morality of Freedom以及Ethics in the Public Domain: Essays in the Morality of Law and Politics。Jeremy Waldron只选了他编辑的Theories of Rights,却没有他的Law and Disagreement。我相信这本书是有资格列为必读书的。Dworkin的书中,除了Taking Rights Seriously与Law’s Empire外,还选了A Matter of Principle,但这本书选了,Dworkin的其它几本著作似乎也不应该忽视。Robert Alexy的The Argument from Injustice: A Reply to Legal Positivism,也是有资格入选的。

第三,於先生自定的选书标准,是“兼容并蓄,大致反映学界的基本面貌,尽量避免专注于某一学派或某一作者”,而两位美国教授选择的标准,似乎更多地立足于自己的学术立场和偏好。不严谨地说,於先生更多地是基于中立的教师立场来选择的,而两位美国教授则是作为学者来选择的。

两种书目都有其价值,全面的书目可以帮助初学者了解学界的基本全貌,对于初学者来言,迅速地浏览相关的书籍是有益的。不过我个人较为倾向于后一种立场。因为在研究生阶段,学生虽然需要继续扩展视野,但更重要的还是要跟随导师对某些方面进行较为深入的学习和研究,而深入的学习和研究是不得不有所偏的,不得不专注于某些学派和学者。

从深入研究的角度看,学者基于自己的研究偏好提出的书目,对于认同该学者并打算追随其研究的人来说更有价值,全面的书单反而会因此显得不全面。例如,某位同学可能会对法律的经济分析感兴趣,这个书目的某些书对他意义就不大,而对于他的深入研究来说,这个书单显然是不足够的。同样,如果另一个同学对自然法理论感兴趣,书单恐怕还得重开一个。我一向服膺于於先生的学识,这几点异见,也算是一点学习心得吧,草录于此,顺便求教于於先生和各位方家。

在伊利诺依州立大学法学院任教的索拉姆(Larry Solum) 教授是一位博学多才、精力旺盛之人。他主持的法学理论博客(Legal Theory Blog)经常登载一些水平相当不错的文章,深得学界博友喜爱。不过,他为网上书商Amazon.com提供的一份“当代法理学前十名” (Top Ten Contemporary Jurisprudence)的书目却让人感到有点纳闷。以下是他的书单:
H.L.A. Hart, The Concept of Law,
Ronald Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously
John Finnis, Natural Law and Natural Rights
Richard Posner, Economic Analysis of Law
Randy Barnett, The Structure of Liberty: Justice and the Rule of Law
Lon Fuller, The Morality of Law
Roger Shiner, Norm and Nature: The Movements of Legal Thought
John Rawls, A Theory of Justice
Bruce Ackerman, We the People: Foundations
Duncan Kennedy, A Critique of Adjudication

很明显,这个书单中的前四本和第六本乃是法理学中的上乘之作,而其余几本就比较有争议。罗尔斯的《正义论》是上乘的政治哲学著作;阿克曼的《我们人民》是一部较好的宪法学著作,但这两本书都不是普通意义上的法理学著作。至于Barnett, Shiner及Kennedy的书,虽然属于法理学著作,但欲进入“前十名”,似乎分量还不是很够。

莱特(Brian Leiter) 看了索拉姆的书单后,用他自己的话说,是大吃一惊 (astonished),称这份书单具有特异倾向(Idiosyncratic)。莱特认为索拉姆的书单不应该包括罗尔斯等人的著作,当然也不应该遗漏一些明显重要的法理学著作。而索拉姆之所以出了这样一份书单,则是因为他对“法理学”这个概念的不同于众的理解。在莱特看来,如果把罗尔斯等人的作品纳入到法理学的范围,那么,他就不知道该如何把握法理学这个概念。在他看来,索拉姆推崇的哈特、富勒、菲尼斯等人的著作都是好书,而德沃金的《法律的帝国》应该比《认真对待权利》好。

索拉姆看了莱特的批评之后,为自己辩解说,他之所以要开那个书单,并不是就一场赛事作出最终评判,而是因为在网上看到了由学生开的类似书单。 因此,他想那些对哲学有好奇心的法科学生也许需要看到不同的观点。于是便提供了那个书单,并称之为“当代法理学前十名”书目。他当时并没有想到该书单中所列之书是当代法与哲学学问中做过重要贡献的作品,而只是想就关于法的性质的理论观点给学生们提供一份涵盖面相对宽泛的书目。Hart, Dworkin, 和Finnis的著作代表了当代关于法的性质的哲学思考。Barnett, Fuller, Kennedy, 及Posner 的著作代表了法学界的不同思想流派。收入罗尔斯的著作是因为其对法学理论的重大影响, 而收入Roger Shiner的书则是因为个人喜好之故。索拉姆认为Roger Shiner从维根斯坦的立场出发对法律实证主义、自然法及法律现实主义之间的相互影响及作用所做的重构非常精彩,发人深思,但却没有引起足够的重视。

莱特自己也开了一个“十部最佳”(Ten Best)书单:
Karl Llewellyn, The Bramble Bush
Hans Kelsen, Pure Theory of Law
Lon Fuller, The Morality of Law
H.L.A. Hart, The Concept of Law
H.L.A. Hart, Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy
Joseph Raz, The Authority of Law
John Finnis, Natural Law and Natural Rights
Ronald Dworkin, Law’s Empire
Gerald Postema, Bentham and the Common Law Tradition
Leslie Green, The Authority of the State

莱特的这个书单显然要比索拉姆的更符合法理学的范围。不过,这个书单也有它的问题。比较明显的问题是由于收入了卢埃琳(Karl Llewellyn)的The Bramble Bush而引起的。既然收入了卢埃琳,那是否也应该收入庞德、卡多佐、弗兰克、抑或霍姆斯?庞德和霍姆斯对法理学的影响显然远远超过卢埃琳。在现实主义法学中,卡多佐和弗兰克的地位也不亚于卢埃琳。其次,哈特的《法理学与法哲学论文集》的影响力及重要性恐怕没有莱特所推崇的那么大。再次,拉兹、博斯迪玛及格林的书虽然也不失为佳作,但同《法的概念》、《法的道德性》、《自然权利与自然法》及《法律的帝国》相比,好像还不在同一个层次。

事实上,在出版事业如此发达的今天,任何一个领域内广为流传的好书多不胜数,“十部佳作”或“二十部佳作”的书单往往都会有以偏概全之虞,加之学者们对书籍本来就各有所爱,对学术也各有立场,在推荐书单的时候免不了有所取舍。最重要的是,一份书单应该兼容并蓄,大致反映学界的基本面貌,尽量避免专注于某一学派或某一作者。我本人觉得,就当代法理学而言,以下这些书,法理研究生一定要读:

Alexy, Robert. A Theory of Legal Argumentation.
Austin, John (W. Rumble, ed.). The Province of Jurisprudence Determined.
Bentham, Jeremy, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation.
Cardozo, Benjamin N. The Nature of the Judicial Process.
Cohen, Felix S., Ethical Systems and Legal Ideals: An Essay on the Foundations of Legal Criticism.
Cohen, Morris Raphael. Reason and Law: Studies in Juristic Philosophy.
Coleman, Jules. The Practice of Principle: In Defence of a Pragmatist Approach to Legal Theory.
Cotterrell, Roger. The Politics of Jurisprudence: A Critical Introduction to Legal Philosophy.
d’Entreves, A.P. Natural Law: An Introduction to Legal Philosophy.
Devlin, Patrick. The Enforcement of Morals.
Dworkin, Ronald. Taking Rights Seriously.
Dworkin, Ronald. A Matter of Principle.
Dworkin, Ronald. Law’s Empire.
Ely, John Hart. Democracy and Distrust: A Theory of Judicial Review.
Finnis, John. Natural Law and Natural Rights.
Frank, Jerome. Law and the Modern Mind.
Friedrich, Carl Joachim. The Philosophy of Law in Historical Perspective.
Fuller, Lon L. The Law in Quest of Itself.
Fuller, Lon. The Morality of Law.
Green, Leslie. The Authority of the State.
Habermas, Jürgen (William Regh, tr.). Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy.
Hart, H.L.A. Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy.
Hart, H.L.A. The Concept of Law.
Hayek, Friedrich A. von. Law, Legislation and Liberty, Vol. 1-3.
Hohfeld, W.N. (Walter Wheeler Cook, ed.). Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in Judicial Reasoning
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr. The Common Law.
Kelsen, Hans (Anders Wedberg, tr.). General Theory of Law and State.
Kelsen, Hans (M. Knight, tr.). The Pure Theory of Law.
Kennedy, Duncan. A Critique of Adjudication (fin de siècle).
Luhmann, Niklas. Law as a Social System.
MacCormick, Neil. Legal Reasoning and Legal Theory.
MacKinnon, Catharine A. Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law.
Marmor, Andrei, ed. Law and Interpretation: essays in legal philosophy.
Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State and Utopia.
Nussbaum, Martha C. Hiding from Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law. Princeton.
Perelman, Chaïm (John Petrie, tr.). The Idea of Justice and the Problem of Argument.
Posner, Richard A. Economic Analysis of Law. Boston.
Postema, Gerald. Bentham and the Common Law Tradition.
Pound, Roscoe. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Law.
Rawls, John. Political Liberalism.
Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice.
Raz, Joseph. The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality.
Raz, Joseph. The Concept of a Legal System.
Ross, Alf (Alastair Hannay & Thomas E. Sheahan, tr.). On Guilt, Responsibility and Punishment.
Sandel, Michael. Liberalism and the Limits of Justice.
Scanlon, Thomas. What We Owe to Each Other.
Schauer, Frederick. Playing by the Rules: A Philosophical Examination of Rule-Based Decision-Making in Law and in Life.
Shiner, R. Norm and Nature: The Movements of Legal Thought.
Shklar, Judith N., Legalism.
Stone, Julius. Human Law and Human Justice.
Sunstein, Cass R., ed. Behavioral Law and Economics
Tamanaha, Brian Z. A General Jurisprudence of Law and Society.
Tamanaha, Brian Z. Law as a Means to an End: Threat to the Rule of Law. Cambridge.
Twining, William. General Jurisprudence.
Unger, Roberto. Law in Modern Society.
Unger, Roberto. What Should Legal Analysis Become?
Waldron, Jeremy, ed. Theories of Rights.

於兴中:《法理学检读》,海洋出版社2010年版,第135页

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